A Scoping Review of Patterns, Motives, and Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Firearm Carriage

Oliphant, S. N., Mouch, C. A., Rowhani-Rahbar, A., Hargarten, S., Jay, J., Hemenway, D., Zimmerman, M.A., Carter, P. M., FACTS Consortium. (2019). A Scoping Review of Patterns, Motives, and Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Firearm Carriage. Journal of behavioral medicine42(4), 763-810.


Firearm carriage is a key risk factor for interpersonal firearm violence, a leading cause of adolescent (age < 18) mortality. However, the epidemiology of adolescent firearm carriage has not been well characterized. This scoping review examined four databases (PubMed; Scopus; EMBASE; Criminal Justice Abstracts) to summarize research on patterns, motives, and underlying risk/protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage. Of 6156 unique titles, 53 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. These studies mostly examined urban Black youth, finding that adolescents typically carry firearms intermittently throughout adolescence and primarily for self-defense/protection. Seven future research priorities were identified, including: (1) examining adolescent carriage across age, gender, and racial/ethnic subgroups; (2) improving on methodological limitations of prior research, including disaggregating firearm from other weapon carriage and using more rigorous methodology (e.g., random/systematic sampling; broader population samples); (3) conducting longitudinal analyses that establish temporal causality for patterns, motives, and risk/protective factors; (4) capitalizing on m-health to develop more nuanced characterizations of underlying motives; (5) increasing the study of precursors for first-time carriage; (6) examining risk and protective factors beyond the individual-level; and, (7) enhancing the theoretical foundation for firearm carriage within future investigations.

Keywords: Adolescent, carriage patterns, firearm, motives, risk/protective factors, scoping review