HF Hsieh, BA Scott, SA Stoddard, MA Zimmerman, MJ Kleinsasser. Exposure to Violence at School and School-Related Promotive Factors Among Adolescents in Urban Settings. Journal of School Violence, 1-16.
We examined the effect of multiple school-related, resilience-promotive factors against exposure to violence (ETV) at school among an urban sample of 6th-grade students (n = 441, 57% female, mean age = 11.81), 90% identify as students of color. Using multilevel mixed-effects linear models, we analyzed two waves of data (baseline and 4-month follow-up). ETV is associated with subsequent higher levels of victimization, cyberbullying victimization and aggressive behavior after controlling for demographics and outcome scores at baseline. A cumulative school promotive factor (CSPF) consisting of school change efficacy, school connectedness, and perceived trust at school has a compensatory effect (direct, opposite main effect) against the effects of ETV on aggressive behaviors and victimization. Finally, the CSPF has a protective (moderating) effect on aggressive behavior, victimization, and cyberbullying victimization.
Keywords: Violence exposure, resilience, victimization, aggressive behavior, cyberbulling, adolescence