Extreme Risk Protection Orders in Connecticut, 2013-2020

Kapoor, R., Viereck, B., Lin, H. J., Swanson, J. W., Easter, M. M., Baranoski, M. V., Zeoli, A. M., Frattaroli, S., & Norko, M. A. (2024). Extreme Risk Protection Orders in Connecticut, 2013-2020. The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 52(2), 165–175.


Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have enacted Extreme Risk Protection Order (ERPO) statutes, which allow temporary removal of firearms from individuals who pose an imminent risk of harm to themselves or others. Connecticut was the first state to enact such a law in 1999. The law’s implementation and use between 1999 and 2013 were previously described, finding that ERPOs were pursued rarely for the first decade and that most orders were issued in response to concerns about suicide or self-harm rather than about interpersonal violence. The current study analyzes over 1,400 ERPOs in Connecticut between 2013 and 2020 in several domains: respondent demographics, circumstances leading to ERPO filing, type of threat (suicide, violence to others, or both), number and type of firearms removed, prevalence of mental illness and drug and alcohol use, and legal outcomes. Results are similar to the earlier study, indicating that ERPO respondents in Connecticut are primarily White, male, middle-aged residents of small towns and suburbs who pose a risk of harm to themselves (67.9%) more often than to others (42.8%). Significant gender differences between ERPO respondents are discussed, as are state-specific trends over time and differences between Connecticut and other states with published ERPO data.

Keywords: extreme risk protection order; firearms; red flag law; risk; suicide prevention; violence prevention.