Firearm injuries are the second leading cause of child and adolescent death in the United States, with homicides currently responsible for 1915, or nearly 60%, of all firearm deaths occurring in the pediatric population. Rates of pediatric firearm homicide have increased over 20% in the past 4 years, and significant disparities persist with regard to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and urbanicity. In the present chapter, we review the current state of our knowledge about the epidemiology of firearm homicide and non-fatal firearm assaults, trends in such injuries over time, global comparisons, contextual factors associated with firearm homicides, and what is known about risk and protective factors associated with interpersonal firearm violence. Finally, we outline a pathway forward for the prevention of interpersonal firearm violence among children and adolescents.
Keywords: Homicide, interpersonal violence, firearm assault, ecological systems theory, active shooter incidents